All ultrasound investigations are based on the detection and display of sound energy reflected from the various interfaces in the body. These interactions help in generating high resolution, gray scale images of various parts of the body as well as help in commenting on the blood flow in various organs. Ultrasound abdomen and pelvis can be used to diagnose any pathology within the liver, spleen, biliary tree, pancreas, gastrointestinal tract, kidney and urinary tract, prostrate, adrenal glands, inguinal region and retro peritoneum. The combination of highly skilled radiologist with state of the art instrumentation helps in gaining maximum diagnostic information from each examination while avoiding errors as much as possible.
Doppler sonography uses information provided by the returning echo to determine velocity of the moving target- in this case amount of blood flow through arteries and veins.. Duplex and colour Doppler imaging are able to demonstrate both normal and abnormal renal blood flow which can help in diagnosing various pathologies like renal artery stenosis, renal artery occlusion and malformation, arteriovenous malformation, aneurysms, renal vein and ovarian vein thrombosis. With the availability of Doppler imaging, the diagnosis of various abnormalities of the vascular system has never been easier.
Ultrasound is the most frequently used imaging modality for the assessment of pregnancy. Level 2 anomaly scan is a routine scan performed in second trimester of pregnancy to assess the growth and development of maturing foetus. Assessment of size to date discrepancy, routine survey of the anatomy of the foetus to rule out congenital malformations, assessment of interval growth and maternal complications can be done using level II anomaly scan.
NT/NB Scan is done between 11-13 weeks of gestation. Nuchal Translucency and nasal bone determination are used in the diagnosis of various genetic and chromosomal abnormalities including turners and Down’s syndrome. Increased Nuchal translucency is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular malformation.
B scan is an important adjuvant for the clinical assessment of various ocular and orbital pathologies. It can be used for the measurement of globe length, visualization of anterior and posterior chamber of the eye, diagnosis of lenticular displacement, detection of tumour, retro bulbar mass and foreign body and visualization of retinal and choroid detachment. With great experience in ophthalmologic ultrasonography and availability of high end technology, we at Venktesh diagnostics believe in great accuracy and precise and timely diagnosis. .
Because of the superficial location of the thyroid gland, high resolution gray imaging and colour Doppler sonography can be used to assess the normal architecture and detect any pathology of the thyroid gland including any nodular or diffuse disease of the thyroid. Sonography also plays an important role in primary and supplemental screening of breast cancer as well as diagnosis in case of any palpable masses in breast. Ultrasound also plays a major role in interventional breast procedures, evaluation of problems associated with breast implants and treatment planning for radiation therapy.
Transvaginal scan or endovaginal scan is a special ultrasound technique in which probe is inserted in the vagina for better visualization of female reproductive organs. It is a fundamental part of pelvic ultrasound examination because of the use of high frequency transducers and vaginal probes’ proximity to uterus and adnexa. Abnormalities in the anatomical structure of uterus, fibroid ,masses ,cysts within the pelvis, pelvic inflammatory disease, causes of postmenopausal bleeding, follicular monitoring, diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy and monitoring foetal development during pregnancy can be easily done using transvaginal scan.
Ultrasound plays an excellent adjuvant to clinical examination in the diagnosis of soft tissue masses. The extent, consistency, fundamental tissue characterization of solid versus cystic and relationship of the mass to nearby structures can be easily made using ultrasonography. Ultrasound provides high resolution imaging of tendons and ligaments and also provides the ability to image dynamically, thus making diagnosis easier and more accurate.
Doppler scan uses high-frequency sound waves to measure the amount of blood flow through arteries and veins which supply blood to the particular limb. Doppler sonography uses information provided by the returning echo to determine velocity of the moving target. Doppler can be used to diagnose abnormality of the arteriovenous system anywhere in the body. In obstetrics, Doppler plays an important role in diagnosis of eclampsia, preeclampsia and fetal well being by measuring blood flow through uterine vessels, placental and umbilical vessels and the middle cerebral artery.
Carotid ultrasound examination sequence includes gray scale examination, Doppler spectral analysis and color Doppler flow interrogations. Each facet of sonography examination is helpful in final determination of the presence and extent of pathology. Atherosclerotic plaque characterization can be done using gray scale imaging, while Doppler spectral analysis helps in determining flow changes in carotids.
X rays are type of electromagnetic waves, since they are more energetic, they can penetrate different tissues like fat, bone, muscle, tumor etc to varying degrees thus helping in visualizing different structures in the body. X Rays are one of the oldest and most frequently used method of diagnostic imaging. Contrast is a chemical substance introduced in the body to visualize certain structures not seen in plain radiography. They render an organ or a structure more visible than is possible without their addition thus making visualization and diagnosis easier and better.
Intravenous pyelography or intravenous urography(IVP) is a special radiographic investigation using contrast media which helps in visualization of the detailed anatomy of collecting system, demonstration of major calcification or acute obstruction in the urinary tract. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is the radiographic evaluation of uterus and fallopian tubes under fluoroscopic guidance. It is helpful in diagnosing the cause of infertility, recurrent spontaneous abortion, anomalies of the uterus and prove tubal ligation after surgical intervention.
Barium sulphate is an inert, non toxic, non degradable, non absorbable, water insoluble radio opaque substance used as a contrast for visualization of gastrointestinal tract. Barium swallow, barium meal, barium meal follow through, small bowel enema, barium enema are various diagnostic radiographic investigations done to visualize various segments of the gastrointestinal tract and look for the underlying pathology.
Sonography is the modality of choice for imaging the pelvis, including the adnexa, because it is non invasive, radiation free, cost effective, and widely available. The appearance of ovary changes with age and phase of menstrual cycle. Under the influence of follicular stimulating hormone, follicle development occurs in the ovary which can be analysed using ultrasonography. Follicular monitoring is an indispensable component of in-vitro fertilization (IVF) assessment and timing. Ultrasonography is used for monitoring of ovarian follicles at regular intervals and documenting the pathway to ovulation.
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